Side effects of multiple c sections

After three or more c-sections there could be so many adhesions that it would take 10 to 60 minutes for a surgeon to cut through them. Adhesions cause abdominal pain and may cause organs to stick to one another or to the abdominal wall. In rare cases they result in infertility. If they form near intestines they can cause a bowel obstruction Another risk of multiple C-sections in the increase in surgical adhesions. Surgical adhesions, as described by Livestrong, are bands of scar tissue that develop on organs as a result of handling during surgery. These are most common in women who have had multiple C-sections. Every time another C-section is performed, more adhesions are created The more C-sections you've had, the greater is your risk of developing problems with the placenta — such as the placenta implanting too deeply into the uterine wall (placenta accreta) or the placenta partially or completely covering the opening of the cervix (placenta previa) Women having multiple repeat c-section deliveries are at increased risk of bladder and bowel injuries, heavy bleeding and problems with the placenta. All You Need to Know About Having A 4th C-Section Whenever undergoing cesarean delivery, it puts under various kinds of risks and these risks may keep increasing with every surgery undergoing

A 1996 study published in American Journal of Obstretics and Gynecology explored the long-term effects of C-sections on three specific future outcomes: ectopic pregnancy, placenta previa, and.. There are also many physical side effects of a C-section related to the pelvic floor, internal scar tissue, uterus, and abdominal muscles that may not manifest until years after surgery Women who have multiple C-sections are at increased risk of placental problems as well as heavy bleeding, which might require surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy). If you're considering a planned C-section for your first delivery, work with your health care provider to make the best decision for you and your baby They add: Cesarean delivery is associated with future subfertility and several subsequent pregnancy risks such as placenta previa, uterine rupture, and stillbirth. More specifically, the risk of.. Women who have numerous c-sections often have a much higher possibility of facing these types of placenta issues, but medical research truly has made it so the possibility of this occurring is slimmer than it has been in the past. 12 Emotional Struggle

Most often back pain happens due to epidural anesthesia. But it can also happen due to the stitches. Every time you laugh or cough, you are straining your stitches. That can also lead to back pain According to the Mayo Clinic, one C-section can impact future pregnancies in a negative manner. Examples include bleeding, placenta previa, abnormal fetal positions and rupturing of the uterus along the previous C-section scar. Placenta previa is normally a rare occurrence that leads to excessive bleeding before or during delivery While mothers in many parts of the world do not have safe and timely access to C-sections, most countries that have the capacity to do C-sections seem to err on the side of doing too many, said obstetrician and study co-author Dr. Neel Shah, who leads the Delivery Decisions Initiative at Ariadne Labs. In the United States, about half. Risks to You As with any major surgery there are several risks associated with a cesarean delivery. These include blood clots, hemorrhaging, and reaction to the anesthesia. You could also have any.. A caesarean section (CS) can be a life-saving intervention when medically indicated, but this procedure can also lead to short-term and long-term health effects for women and children. Given the increasing use of CS, particularly without medical indication, an increased understanding of its health effects on women and children has become crucial, which we discuss in this Series paper

Multiple C-Section Complications Hello Motherhoo

13 Risks You Didn't Know About With Multiple C-Section

  1. What are the Side Effects of C-Sections, Both Short and Long-Term? There are a few (ok, more than a few) things you should keep tabs on when you undergo a c-section. Some of them may be problematic soon after your surgery, while others might not arise until later on in life. Keeping an eye on your health and talking with your doctor can often.
  2. C-sections may injure endometrial tissue, causing it to move outside of the uterus. A 2016 study found that physical injuries, especially repeated ones, could lead to endometriosis
  3. Some of the main risks to you of having a caesarean include: infection of the wound (common) - causing redness, swelling, increasing pain and discharge from the wound infection of the womb lining (common) - symptoms include a fever, tummy pain, abnormal vaginal discharge and heavy vaginal bleedin
  4. The long-term risks of c-sections are more apparent when women decide to have more children. Women who have previously had c-sections are at higher risk of having uncontrolled bleeding (haemorrhage), a ruptured uterus, and an unplanned hysterectomy. These risks are increased even further if they have had a second c-section
  5. utes. Reasons for a C-section are repeat or previous C-sections, labor is not progressing, the fetus is not in the right position, and emergency situations. Pain control options during a C-section are an epidural or spinal block and general anesthesia. Side effects of a C-section are.
  6. Sonia, no one knows your uterus better than your ob/gyn. Have this conversation with him/her. Many women have had multiple c-sections while others have been told that 2's the limit. My best friend growing up had 3 c-sections successfully, all 3 girls and her did extremely well. The more important question is wanting a 3rd child

Repeat C-sections: Is there a limit? - Mayo Clini

Cesarean section (c-sections) rates vary across the United States ranging from 23-40%. There are risks and benefits to vaginal birth and c-sections. There are certain circumstances in which a c-section is the safest route of delivery, even with the increased risks of surgery Some of these C-sections are for health reasons while others are due to convenience. In most cases, a c-section isn't the woman's choice, but the only way she can safely deliver her baby. Either way, going through a cesarean surgery can be rough. There are lots of uncomfortable things that happen after, like leg and feet swelling Caesarean section, also known as a C-section, is the delivery of a baby through an incision that your doctor makes on the abdomen and womb (uterus). Indications. A C-section may be recommended by your surgeon for the following reasons: Risks involved in a vaginal birth. Multiple births (more than one baby) Summary: Moms-to-be are getting more ultrasounds than is medically indicated — an average of 5.2 per delivery, up 92 percent since 2004, according to new data reported on by The Wall Street Journal. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends getting one to two scans per low risk pregnancy — and it's estimated that 75 percent of all pregnancies are considered. C-sections are sometimes scheduled in advance for various pregnancy complications, Common C-section side effects include cramping, nausea, weakness, and fatigue. It may be uncomfortable to.

C-Section Recovery and Magnesium. Harvard Medical School and Stanford University School of Medicine researchers have settled on an ideal national C-section rate of 19 percent, but some hospital C-section rates can rise as high as 70 percent. Though many C-sections are emergent and medically necessary, doctors aim to keep C-section rates within. Multiple births may make a C-section necessary. Your baby may be too large or in the wrong position for vaginal delivery. Your baby may have birth defects that make a C-section safer Cesarean section, C-section, or Cesarean birth is the surgical delivery of a baby through a cut (incision) made in the mother's abdomen and uterus. Health care providers use it when they believe it is safer for the mother, the baby, or both. The incision made in the skin may be The rate of serious complications, following C-sections, is very low. However, risk is always involved, and it includes, reactions to meds, problems breathing, bleeding, infections of the bladder or uterus, injury to the urinary tract and injury to your baby. c-section side effects hernia after c-section pregnancy after c section Pregnancy.

4th C Section Complications: Risks and Complication

How Having A C-Section Affects Your Body Later In Life

  1. Cesareans are not unique in their risks every operation carries the risk of complications. One thing that is specific to cesarean sections is that risks apply to two persons, the mother and the baby. Here is an overview of possible complications of c-sections, either during the operation or immediately afterward
  2. When there are multiple babies in the womb, a c-section is a wise decision so that no harm is done to either the babies or the mother. Some women think that having a c-section will prevent them from side effects of vaginal birth like urinary incontinence or fecal incontinence. there is a connection between c-sections and urinary.
  3. Multiple **cesarean sections (c sections)**: Women who have had multiple cesarean sections have a higher risk of developing placenta accreta. This results from scarring of the uterus from the procedures. The more cesarean sections a woman has over time, the higher her risk of placenta accreta
  4. The spleen can be affected by numerous medical conditions; let's review a few: Sickle cell disease: In sickle cell disease, the sickled red blood cells are not flexible and can be trapped in the spleen, causing the spleen to expand. As more and more red blood cells are trapped in the spleen, it gets larger and larger

Reducing opioid use in patients undergoing C-sections. Consider these statistics: Approximately 1 in 3 babies born in the United States is delivered via cesarean section (C-section). As many as 7% of surgical patients prescribed an opioid for pain control become persistent users Abdominal Adhesions. Abdominal adhesions are scar tissue that forms between abdominal tissues and organs that causes your tissues and organs to stick together. Surgery of the abdomen is the main cause of this scar tissue. You usually won't need treatment. Appointments 216.444.7000

Satisfaction guarantee on Generic Cialis, 2020-2021 approved by FDA. Tadalafil online ordering. Buy cheap pills with discount. Wide choice of products. Low prices. Generic Cialis is an analog of the famous original drug that was used to maintain potency Symptoms of endometriosis after C-section. The most common symptom of endometriosis and adenomyosis after a cesarean delivery is pelvic pain. Another common symptom is the formation of a mass or.

Possible C Section Complications Years Later - The VBAC Lin

Second stage C-sections also come with higher risks of bleeding and infection. Sometimes a baby's head is not positioned so it's coming straight out, but instead is cocked to the side, making it more difficult to pass through the birth canal. We may be able to correct the head position with the forceps Currently, there are three types of oral contraceptive pills: combined estrogen-progesterone, progesterone only and the continuous or extended use pill. The birth control pill is the most commonly prescribed form of contraception in the US. Approximately 25% of women age 15 to 44 who currently use contraception reported using the pill as their method of choice Usually high % of side effects (or just negative effects). Biologics are natural (if processed correctly) and allows multiple pathways to be effective that address multiple mechanisms of action. For example, anti-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to decrease chronic inflammation and growth factors may help stimulate the regeneration of cells a tubal ligation (without understanding the possible side effects), I came home much different than I had left. I was depressed and gaining weight. Elaina used to be active, always running 5Ks, but after her tubal ligation she became fatigued and depressed. She started gaining weight and lost her sex drive. Her husband felt like he lost his. Your stomach can go back to being flat only if you follow the right post c-section belly workout. The first step to getting a flat tummy post c-section is actually believing that you will fit into your old pair of jeans again. YOGA POSES FOR POSTNATAL WEIGHT LOSS. The process of losing any kind of belly fat is not easy

A previous C-Section: While having a first cesarean raises your risk of subsequent procedures, vaginal birth after C-section or VBAC is frequently successful and often recommended. Certain medical conditions: Like heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney disease can make vaginal delivery dangerously stressful to your body and birth by C-section a safer option Managing Side Effects. Recovery varies from person to person. You may feel tired and have abdominal cramping for a couple of days after having a cone biopsy. You may also have bloody discharge for two to three weeks after the procedure. You'll probably need to wear sanitary pads during this time Endometrial ablation is a procedure to remove a thin layer of tissue (endometrium) that lines the uterus. It is done to stop or reduce heavy menstrual bleeding. But it is only done on women who do not plan to have any children in the future. The procedure is not surgery, so you will not have any cut (incision) Most side effects of antibiotics have to do with their effects on body systems unaffected by the targeted infection. Unfortunately, these drugs cannot differentiate between good germs necessary for the gastrointestinal (GI) system to work properly and the bad germs that are causing a patient's disease

Much of the research on abortion's long-term effects has been conducted outside the United States, and a substantial volume of literature is based on abortion care in countries where such factors as socioeconomic conditions, culture, population health, health care resources, and/or the health care system are markedly different from those in the. Medical abortion has side effects. A much-cited classic study by Irving Spitz et al. on 2,015 women who had medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol found that the side effects increased with each passing week. 3. Bleeding. While it is the major cause of anxiety for most women, bleeding is absolutely normal. Passing blood clots is. A caesarean section, or C-section, is an operation to deliver your baby through a cut made in your tummy and womb. The cut is usually made across your tummy, just below your bikini line. A caesarean is a major operation that carries a number of risks, so it's usually only done if it's the safest option for you and your baby

Epidural side effects, like slowing down the labor process, may lead to more interventions, like Pitocin (synthetic oxytocin). Pitocin may cause fast or irregular heartbeat for the mother and serious complications for the baby, thereby increasing the chances of delivery by emergency C-section SIDE EFFECTS. In multiple-dose United States and foreign controlled studies in which adverse reactions were reported spontaneously, adverse effects were frequent but generally not serious and rarely required discontinuation of therapy or dosage adjustment. Most were expected consequences of the vasodilator effects of PROCARDIA

Other PRP Applications You Possibly Don't Know About. The most commonly used PRP applications include hair growth, anti-aging treatments, and knee arthritis. But, there are various other conditions that doctors have helped using PRP therapy. Here are some of them: Rejuvenating islet cells to stop diabetes Although considered safe for the baby, steroid use may be associated with side effects like diabetes, increased blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, kidney problems, breaking of the water early, low birth weight babies, and intra-uterine growth retardation Garcinia Cambogia Side Effects. In clinical studies, Garcinia cambogia has proven to be a safe, well-tolerated oral supplement. Patients have exhibited no serious effects when taking Garcinia cambogia for up to 12 continuous weeks (which is the maximum length of studies performed so far) Anesthesia side effects may include severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Anesthesia may also affect the baby, causing him or her to be sluggish or inactive when born. Women with planned cesarean sections have longer hospital stays and a longer postpartum recovery period than women with vaginal deliverie Talk to your doctor about potential side effects before beginning treatment, and report all side effects to your provider -- especially if side effects are severe enough to warrant ending treatment. Changes in Mood IVF drugs stimulate your ovaries to produce multiple eggs, thereby increasing your chances of getting pregnant each cycle

C-section - Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clini

  1. C-sections and links to long-term conditions. There is limited research into how c-sections affect the long-term health of children. There is some evidence that children born by c-section may have a higher risk of long-term conditions, such as childhood asthma, type 1 diabetes or obesity. The reason for this increased risk isn't clear
  2. Complications from a C-section are rare, but they may include: Reactions to anesthetic medications. Bleeding. Infection. Blood clots. Bowel or bladder injuries. Women who have C-sections may be.
  3. Multiple c-sections carry risks. Know The Possible Side-Effects Of This Surgery. Stay Safe From These 4 Common Eye Problems During Monsoon. 6 Exercises to Overcome Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
  4. The Reason Multiple C-Sections Can Be Dangerous, According to a Doctor. June 26, 2018 by Isadora Baum.
  5. imal (manageable) complications. However, fertility clinics want to be on the safe side and ensure the health and safety of their surrogate mothers and the babies they carry. There are many cases of women having 3-4 c-sections, but four is pretty much the cap that most.
  6. Plus, on top of that there was serious depression involved and adverse side effects of The pope's rebuke remains a quite rational and sensible one with regard to multiple c-sections, but.
  7. Infection Following C-Sections. If a pregnant woman cannot have a vaginal birth due to complications that threaten the mother or her child, her doctor will recommend a Cesarean section, also known as a C-section. This permits the doctor to remove the baby directly from the uterus

More women are choosing to have C-Sections performed without any medical necessity to do so. The term 'too posh to push' became a popular catch phrase in the noughties when film stars elected to have C-Sections to prevent too much stretching of the stomach by waiting for a later natural delivery (avoiding stretch marks in the process). This is. While rubbing babies and clearing their airways, we also should strive to prevent the three hypos in neonates: hypothermia, hypotension and hypoxia. We conclude our three-part article on C-sections with resuscitation and care of the neonates. It is time to change a few old habits and to embrace more modern techniques. Part 1 is here; Part 2 is here. 7. Resuscitation While rubbing babies and.

Be prepared for different circumstances. Some C-sections are scheduled ahead of time for reasons including multiple births, a baby in the breech position or certain medical conditions in the mother Overview of Canine C-section (Cesarean) A cesarean (C-section) is a surgical procedure in which unborn puppies are surgically removed from the mother dog's uterus. It is performed when an animal is having problems while delivering the newborns and is typically an emergency (not an elective) surgery. For certain breeds prone to dystocia (difficult birth), such as English bulldogs, a cesarean. I'm 45 with 5 kids (2 C-sections and multiple DNCs) I feel your pain Don't want the side effects of IUD or birth control either (hubby had a vasectomy years ago). Would love to hear what worked for other women in my similar situtation/age. Reply. WS says: October 14, 2018 at 6:27 pm

The share of women who have C-sections in the U.S. surged over recent decades for multiple reasons, including a rise in riskier pregnancies tied to chronic conditions like obesity and diabetes. Multiple C-sections can also cause health problems such as: Bladder and bowel injury; Uterine rupture or heavy bleeding leading to hysterectomy ; Problems with placental implantation ; So, if you are planning more pregnancies, it may be a good idea to avoid elective C-sections

Long-term risks and benefits of C-section reveale

Everything has risks and side effects, Dr. Ragonetti-Zabell says. And your doctor should review these with you so you can make the best decision for your needs. Despite the small risk. Cesarean childbirth may have these types of complications: Excessive bleeding: This is the most common complication of a cesarean delivery and may be caused by many different factors. In short, at the time of active labor, the uterus receives 20% (up to 30% in some cases) of the blood pumped to the body by the heart Scheduled C-sections. Caesarians may be necessary to spare the bitch but if disregarding the dam's schedule in order to deliver puppies on the office schedule is too inconvenient for you or the vet, you should both get another profession. Of course breeders dread the late night or weekend delivery Only recently has the downside of multiple C-sections been fully recognized. Having more than one C-section can lead to placenta accreta, the potentially life-threatening condition in which the. C-section pain in the first 1 to 2 weeks after surgery can be pretty intense, and it takes many women until week 3 or 4 to feel better. In the meantime, take the pain medications your doctor recommends. You deserve the relief! If you're breastfeeding, your doctor will prescribe pain meds that are safe for the baby and that won't affect your milk supply

20 Ways C-Section Complications Still Affect Mom Years Late

Contrary to common belief, cesareans cause slightly more complications and side effects for the mother and the baby than do natural births, and they pose increasing risks with every subsequent. These medications can have side effects, some mild and others more intense. Cesarean Section Cesarean section is more likely with multiples, due to unfavorable presentation (such as when the first baby is not head down) or complications, which means longer recovery for the mother after birth and a higher risk of complications during labor Cesarean sections (C-sections) are a procedure used to deliver a baby through a mother's abdomen. Closing a C-section incision involves reuniting multiple layers of muscle and fascia (a web-like.

Long Term Side Effects Of A C-Section - Boldsky

While the copper IUD is a safe form of birth control, side effects are possible -- such as irregular bleeding, infection or displacement of the device. Menstrual Problems. Menstrual problems are the most common side effect you might experience after insertion of a copper IUD. You might have longer periods and heavier bleeding, up to 50 percent. Current immunomodulatory therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) can effectively inhibit autoimmune response, but largely fail to promote myelin repair. This therapeutic deficiency is due mainly to the failure of treatment to promote remyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that ursolic acid (UA), a natural triterpenoid, in addition to its well-known antiinflammatory. Opioid-free C-Sections allow mothers to experience fewer side effects, be more alert and recover more quickly than traditional C-Sections with the use of opioids. All bariatric procedures performed at BSA are conducted with reduced opioid use to reduce each patients risk of dangerous side effects If medication is something you think you might want, get a prescription and information about the side effects for both yourself-and the baby, if you are breastfeeding. If you prefer to avoid medications, talk with your health care provider about alternatives that are safe for you and your baby

Long-Term Effects of Having a C-Section Hello Motherhoo

A chemical abortion is a two-pill regimen that ends the life of the baby and poses health risks to the mother. The deaths of 24 women have been associated with the abortion pill, Melanie. Other potential causes include C-sections, scar-tissue-causing conditions like endometriosis (when excess tissue from the uterine lining—or similar to it—grows on other organs) or infections. She takes Diethylstilbestrol (or DES in short), the first synthetic man made female sex hormone (oestrogen) widely prescribed for public use in the mistaken belief that it would prevent miscarriage and loss. Now let's fast forward. We're in 2001 three decades after my mum took DES. I'm in a hospital ward anxiously waiting for the results.

Study tracks long-term health risks to women after having

A Randomized, Controlled, Double blind study aiming to evaluate the analgesic potentials and side effect profile of different dose levels of Dexmedetomidine added to subarachnoid bupivacaine in full-term pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean section using spinal anesthesia Side effects: the spinal headache. While not a foolproof way to diagnose Multiple Sclerosis, they can still yield valuable information about the status of your nervous system. The first one was excruciating, and this is coming from someone who has had over a dozen kidney stones and 2 c-sections, 10 years apart and was up walking an hour. Medication reaction or side-effect. Medication side effects include nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, weakness, dizziness, seizures, and more. Overeating. Overeating is eating when you're not hungry or to the point of feeling uncomfortably full or bloated. Esophagiti C-sections can be unavoidable. Not every woman is able to breastfeed, nor are women always able to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months as recommended. Exposure to even a single round of antibiotics, and even a single bottle of formula , may call a need for probiotics and prebiotics at any age, independent of how you were born or fed early in life

C-Section Risks & Complication

C-sections today have become a considerably safer procedure than it was a few decades ago, but there is need to refine it further. the choice of drug to counteract the side effects of the. Hysterectomy, the removal of the uterus, is the second most common surgery for women in the U.S.— second only to c-sections. This is a shocking piece of trivia that most people are unaware of Pregnancies with multiple fetuses can involve more complications, often leading to substantially lower birth weights and pre-term births. There's a higher rate of c-sections, more diabetes, more. The dark side of antibiotics and what we can do about it but can have effects that extend to autoimmune disorders like multiple Antibiotics for C-sections effective after umbilical cord. § Expected side effects include: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, fever/chills and may be treated with appropriate medications. § Expectant management of the placenta for up to 4 hours after delivery of the fetus has no serious adverse effects as long as there is no evidence of worsening bleeding

Short-term and long-term effects of caesarean section on

Long-term or permanent side effects can include severe dementia (reportedly concerning 11% of one-year and 50% of two-year survivors), memory loss, speech impediments, loss of eyesight, leukoencephalopathy (diseases of the white matter of the brain), and radiation necrosis of the brain (killing off good brain cells) Scion Lab Services, LLC is a high complexity clinical testing facility licensed under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA), 42 U.S.C. Sections 263a, et seq. and the regulations promulgated thereunder, 42. C.F.R. Section 493, et seq. as well as the state of Florida, and accredited by the Commission on Office.

You Asked: How many C-sections can a woman have? - Vital

Side effects of Pitocin to the mother include: allergic reaction, nausea, vomiting, pelvic hematoma, heart rhythm irregularities, postpartum hemorrhage and death. Side effects to the baby include: brain or nervous system damage, heart beat problems and fetal death. Cytotec is not approved for inducing labor, but some doctors use it off-label Introduction. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. In the United States, head neck cancer accounts for 3% of all cancers, with approximately 60,000 new cases and more than 12,000 deaths estimated in 2020 ().Despite advances in conventional therapies, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, molecularly targeted agents, and more. Dexamethasone is one of many adjuncts tested to prolong the duration of spinal anesthesia and its analgesic effect. The intent of this, a single-site, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, is to determine if a single intravenous (IV) 8 mg dose of Dexamethasone given after clamping of the umbilical cord at Caesarean section will prolong the duration of analgesia provided by spinal. Similarly, in 2015, everyone knows that the C-section rate is too high. Researchers are so sure that C-sections are harmful that they exaggerate findings that place C-sections in a negative light. A new paper about C-sections and asthma is a case in point. According to yesterday's New York Times For example, if a driver runs a red light and crashes into your vehicle, you can prove that the crash led to your injuries. If the doctor prescribing the wrong medication led to the development of serious side effects, you can also prove causation. If you fell down the stairs that the property owner failed to fix, you can establish causation as.

What Are the Side Effects of Cesarean Delivery

Have mother use Hee-hee breathing technique to slow expulsion of head over perineum. 2. Apply gentle counter pressure against presenting part. 3. Check for nuchal cord & remove if loose. 4. Apply downward pressure to deliver anterior shoulder and then upward pressure over perineum to deliver posterior shoulder Okuniewska et al. demonstrate that the transporter SPNS2 supplies the S1P that guides T cells out of lymph nodes with an ongoing immune response, and Spns2 deletion is protective in a multiple sclerosis model. This highlights the therapeutic potential of SPNS2 inhibitors to achieve spatially specific modulation of S1P signaling Aging-associated dermatological pigmentary diseases are associated with accumulation of senescence cells and the disruption of basement membrane due to chronic ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. Our study is on the synergistic effect of the novel 300 μm needle-depth fractional microneedling radiofrequency (FMR) treatment and conventional Q-switched ND:YAG laser on aging-associated.